Now it used to be that taking exploring the Java heap was a tedious and horrid process. Fortunately, the JDK now comes with VisualVM that makes working with the heap really easy.
VisualVM can attach to any running Java process and monitor it's memory usage, which in itself can be useful, but it can also take a heap dump and then provides an easy tool for navigating through the often vasts amount of information provided. Now in theory you should be able to use VisualVM to examine the heap of the tomcat server running a troublesome web app. Now try as I might I couldn't get this to work. The problem stems from the fact that I'm running tomcat under a different user account than my own, an account that you can't actually log in to (for the curious I installed tomcat under Ubuntu using the default package which runs tomcat under the tomcat6 user). I could monitor the memory usage but no matter what I tried (and believe me I tried all sorts of things) I couldn't manage to get a heap dump.
In the end I resorted to manually creating a core dump using the unix gcore utility and then loading this into VisualVM which could then generate a heap dump. This actually works quite nicely. The only downside is that it requires you to know the process ID of the tomcat web server and this changes everytime the server is restarted, which if you are debugging a problem, can be quite often. So to make my life a little easier I've written a small bash script that makes tomcat dump it's heap, which I've cleverly called tomscat!
#!/bin/bash pid=`ps -u tomcat6 | grep java | sed 's/ .*$//g'` count=0 ls -1 tomcat*.$pid > /dev/null 2>&1 [ $? -eq 0 ] && count=`ls -1 tomcat*.$pid | wc -l` gcore -o tomcat$count $pid
This script firstly finds the pid for the tomcat process then works out if there are already any core dumps for this instance of tomcat and then generates a core dump into a nicely named file. Currently there is little in the way of error handling so if it doesn't work any errors may be cryptic! Anyway hopefully other people might find this script useful, I know it made the process of creating a bunch of heap dumps quite easy, and once I had the heap dumps tracking down the leak was fairly easy (turns out the the leak was due to large cache objects associated with database connections not being made available for garbage collection).